Release artifact on Maven central19 Oct 2019 - Tobias Erdle
I'm working on a small Java lib on Github since a few weeks and thought it would be time to release it on Maven Central, so me or other people can use it without building it on their local machine. As it was a little bit hard for me to find all information necessary to perform the release, I decided to write down everything I did to get my lib into Maven Central.
If you want to follow the steps below, please make sure you have a working Java development environment (JDK, Maven) and a Github account. Ensure that
JAVA_HOME is set properly.
1. Sign up on Sonatypes JIRA
The first step is to create an account in Sonatypes JIRA. There you need to create an issue in the second step.
2. Create issue for new project
In JIRA, you need to create an issue with type New Project and fill in the fields for your desired groupId, your project URL (your GitHub project link) and the Git URL (you need to use the HTTPS link). At the end, add your username and set Already synced to Central to NO. Create the issue.
Small advice: If you plan to release different artifacts under the same groupId (e.g. your domain), you can also ask for permissions on the "parent" groupId. So in my case, instead for asking only to get rights on de.erdlet.jcrud, I asked for access to de.erdlet.
For an example, please have a look into this JIRA issue.
2.1 Optional: Prove that you own your domain
If you want to publish artifacts on a groupId which is based on a custom domain, you need to prove Sonatype that you own (or better: have control over) the domain. Therefore set up a redirect to your GitHub Page (if you own one) or add a TXT DNS record referencing the issue.
3.0 Optional: Generate a GPG keypair and publish it
If you want to sign your artifacts and don't already have a GPG keypair you want to use for it, create one with
gpg --full-gen-key. Afterwards, publish the public key to a keyserver, so other people can verify your builds.
4.0 Prepare and perform the release
The next steps describe how to prepare your project for the release and finally how to perform your release.
4.1 Ensure \<url> and \<license> is set
While performing my very first release on Sonatype, I forgot to declare these attributes and as a result, the artifact was not promoted to release repository.
4.2 Declare \<distributionManagement>, \<issueManagement> and \<scm> attributes
<scm> seem to be not that important for the release, the declaration of
<distributionManagement> is more or less the most important for the Maven release. There is described where to push Snapshots and release artifacts. If you are publishing your first artifact after February 2021, the
<distributionManagement> section for Sonatype OSS looks like this:
<distributionManagement> <snapshotRepository> <id>ossrh</id> <url>https://s01.oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots</url> </snapshotRepository> <repository> <id>ossrh</id> <url>https://s01.oss.sonatype.org/service/local/staging/deploy/maven2/</url> </repository> </distributionManagement>
Anyway, if something was deployed under your namespace before Februar 2021, you need to use those coordinates according to this Sonatype blog entry
<distributionManagement> <snapshotRepository> <id>ossrh</id> <url>https://oss.sonatype.org/content/repositories/snapshots</url> </snapshotRepository> <repository> <id>ossrh</id> <url>https://oss.sonatype.org/service/local/staging/deploy/maven2/ </url> </repository> </distributionManagement>
4.2 Declare plugins in pom.xml
After adding the information above, the next step is to add the necessary plugins for an artifact release. The order of the plugins in the
<build><plugin> section is not important. At first, the maven-deploy-plugin is added:
<plugin> <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId> <version>2.8.2</version> <executions> <execution> <id>default-deploy</id> <phase>deploy</phase> <goals> <goal>deploy</goal> </goals> </execution> </executions> </plugin>
The second plugin is the maven-release-plugin:
<plugin> <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId> <artifactId>maven-release-plugin</artifactId> <version>2.5.3</version> <configuration> <localCheckout>true</localCheckout> <pushChanges>false</pushChanges> <mavenExecutorId>forked-path</mavenExecutorId> </configuration> <dependencies> <dependency> <groupId>org.apache.maven.scm</groupId> <artifactId>maven-scm-provider-gitexe</artifactId> <version>1.9.5</version> </dependency> </dependencies> </plugin>
The maven-scm-provider-gitexe plugin is used to generate the tags for the prepared release. For other SCMs are corresponding plugins available.
To get the sources and JavaDoc artifacts attached to the build, the maven-source-plugin needs to be set up:
<plugin> <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId> <artifactId>maven-source-plugin</artifactId> <version>2.2.1</version> <executions> <execution> <id>attach-sources</id> <goals> <goal>jar-no-fork</goal> </goals> </execution> </executions> </plugin> <plugin> <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId> <artifactId>maven-javadoc-plugin</artifactId> <version>2.9.1</version> <executions> <execution> <id>attach-javadocs</id> <goals> <goal>jar</goal> </goals> </execution> </executions> </plugin>
And as a last plugin in the
<build> section, the nexus-staging-maven-plugin can be added optionally. This plugin can be configured to perform the release from a staging repo automatically. If you want to do this process manually, skip this plugin.
<plugin> <groupId>org.sonatype.plugins</groupId> <artifactId>nexus-staging-maven-plugin</artifactId> <version>1.6.7</version> <extensions>true</extensions> <configuration> <serverId>ossrh</serverId> <nexusUrl>https://oss.sonatype.org/</nexusUrl> <autoReleaseAfterClose>true</autoReleaseAfterClose> </configuration> </plugin>
<build> section is set up, a small profile for releases is added in the pom.xml. Inside, the plugin for signing the artifacts with the previously generated GPG key is configured. The whole section may look like this:
<profiles> <profile> <id>sign-artifacts-on-release</id> <activation> <property> <name>performRelease</name> <value>true</value> </property> </activation> <build> <plugins> <plugin> <groupId>org.apache.maven.plugins</groupId> <artifactId>maven-gpg-plugin</artifactId> <version>1.6</version> <executions> <execution> <id>sign-artifacts</id> <phase>verify</phase> <goals> <goal>sign</goal> </goals> </execution> </executions> </plugin> </plugins> </build> </profile> </profiles>
While preparing the release, you will be prompted for your GPG keys passphrase. If you want to release by a CI job, the passphrase can be set in the settings.xml. As I only want to release manually, I skipped this setting.
4.2 Add configuration to settings.xml
Before the release can be performed, there is a small change to do in the settings.xml (located in
One server attribute has to be added, which contains username and password for the Sonatype Nexus. These credentials are the same as the JIRA credentials created above.
<servers> <server> <id>ossrh</id> <username>[your username]</username> <password>[your password]</password> </server> </servers>
Please pay attention to the id. It must be the same as the id declared in
5. Prepare and release!
After these setup steps, the first release can be performed. Therefore the following commands have to be executed:
# Clean up your workspace mvn clean # Prepare the release. This call adds a Tag to git, sets the intermediate release # version and increases the version in the pom afterwards. mvn release:prepare # Releases and deploys the plugin to Nexus. # When the Nexus plugin is enabled, it also closes the staging repository and releases # the artifact to the release repository. mvn release:perform
5.1 Optional: Promote artifact manually
If you don't want to promote the artifact automatically to the release repository by the Nexus plugin, you need to log in to the Sonatype OSS Nexus and do this step manually. The JIRA credentials have to be used for the Nexus login.
6. Verify repository and update the JIRA issue
mvn release:perform step is successful and the artifact promoted, check if it can be found in the Nexus. If yes, update the JIRA as claimed by the Sonatype admin, so the sync to Maven Central can be started and the artifact is going to be usable by everybody.
After you released the lib, you just need to push the code changes (in this case it should only be the version uprade in the
pom.xml) and the new Git tag to GitHub.